& Evaluation and Program Assessment
PCH has extensive experience in designing and implementing:
PCH's most innovative projects have integrated multiple methods such
as review of existing data, focus groups and surveys.
PCH incorporates different psychological, behavioral, systems, and communication
theories into the development of their projects. PCH goes beyond providing
descriptive data by working with clients to develop theories that might
explain outcome behaviors or attitudes. Theories are tested by collecting
appropriate demographic and other "causal" variables and analyzing
them using statistical models.
PCH develops questionnaires using formats that facilitate ease of understanding
and improves the accuracy of data-entry. Questionnaires are developed for
paper and pencil, on-line and web based implementation. PCH has bilingual
(Spanish/English) capacity and surveys are usually designed in both languages.
has conducted over 75 focus groups and key informant interviews in 1999,
and has considerable expertise in recruiting participants and moderating
sessions. Using PCH video and audio equipment, staff often set up facilities
at community-based organizations, or, when possible, uses professional focus
group facilities. Focus group outlines are developed with clients, and moderators
use them to guide interaction among participants. Audio and/or video tapes
of sessions may be transcribed or viewed by trained coders. Key comments
are selected and coded to enable systematic analysis of the focus groups
and key informant interviews. Confidentiality is assured to all clients.
PCH has bilingual capacity and focus groups can be conducted in English
designs sampling frames for general populations and special subpopulations,
such as communities of color. PCH has expertise in reaching difficult-to-reach
populations including rural populations, homeless, adolescents, substance
users and undocumented individuals. Random, quota, and convenience sampling
methods are used for focus groups and in-person, mail, and telephone surveys.
|Focus Groups and
Key Informant Interviews
PCH supervises and often
conducts the field work for surveys. PCH hires, trains and supervises local
staff in correct respondent selection and data collection procedures. For
larger projects, PCH may subcontract field work, but it always maintains
high levels of supervision to assure that the data is complete and accurate.
When possible PCH hires persons from the community being surveyed to conduct
the field work.
PCH staff enters data from
questionnaires and verifies all work. On-line data collection is formatted
at the front end of the process, and can save considerable time and cost
in data entry as well as improve the quality of the data. Data dictionaries
and codebooks are developed as part of the process of preparing data for
PCH has developed methods
of non-obtrusive data collection, including systematic observations and
chart reviews. Coding schema are developed and observers or coders are trained
to provide reliable observations and chart reviews.
and chart reviews
Quantitative analysis provides
information that can be generalized from the sample to the target population.
PCH uses SPSS and other statistical analysis programs to provide descriptive
and multivariate analysis of data. Theories are tested using the appropriate
statistical methods including regression and multiple classification analysis.
Factor analysis and other multidimensional methods are used to reduce and
categorize data elements.
including regression and data reduction methods
Qualitative analysis provides
in-depth information about topics of interest. It is not generalizable to
the target population but is useful for understanding the process of decision
making. Focus groups determine factors and language that are important to
clients and consumers. PCH develops coding schemas with the clients and
inductively from the data and systematically codes verbatim comments from
focus groups and key informant interviews. Counts of responses as well as
verbatim quotes are used to illustrate findings.
including systematic analysis of focus group and key informant interview
PCH has completed several
projects that incorporate a systematic analysis of existing information
and data. PCH has the bibliographic and data base capabilities to conduct
both meta analysis and traditional literature reviews. PCH has access to
numerous on-line services to conduct bibliographic and key word searches,
such as the Library of Medicine's Grateful Med, AIDSLine, MedScape, and
|Secondary data analysis
and literature reviews
PCH has conducted epidemiological
reviews for HIV and AIDS for specified geographic areas based on aggregate
reported data and clinical data. PCH uses different models to project trends
to the future. Data is presented in easy to read graphics
PCH prepares professional
reports. The table of contents, headings and subheadings facilitate navigating
through the reports. Graphics are used to illustrate the data. Reports are
written at the reading level of the expected audience. Executive summaries
provide overall summaries.
|Reports and graphic
PCH has the capacity to provide animated PowerPoint and web based presentations